Monday, May 25, 2009

William Marshal, marshal of England

Chepstow Castle


Pembroke Castle

Temple Church, London

Tomb Effigy of William Marshal

Stephen Langton described William Marshal as the “greatest knight that ever lived”. But he started out his early life as a younger son, who was obviously considered to be expendable to his father.
In 1152, his father, John Marshall caught up in the fighting between King Stephen and the Empress Matilda. He switched sides, and King Stephen besieged his castle at Newbury.

King Stephen took the six year old child William hostage. In an attempt to use him as a bargaining chip, Stephen ordered John Marshal to surrender or he would hang William. John answered that Stephen should go ahead, for "I still have the hammer and the anvil with which to forge still more and better sons!" What an effect it must have had on his young life to be so publicly declared as being of no value to his father. Despite his threat, King Stephen took pity on young William and could not bring himself to hang him.

As a child, he was sent to Normandy to serve in the household of William de Tancarville and start his training towards becoming a knight. He remained there for about eight years, serving as squire to de Tancarville, who was the hereditary chamberlain of Normandy. In addition to the art of war that he learned in his lord's household, he also learned the courtly art of singing, and the virtues of generosity, piety and courteousness.

Those who have written about William indicate that he was a typical teenage young man, showing little to indicate a promising future. He apparently had a reputation for, eating, sleeping and drinking. Despite his lack of obvious promise, chroniclers of his time say that he was a very well built and beautiful man. They describe his body as being more beautiful than a sculpture, with very beautiful hands and feet. He had brown hair, and his face resembled that of a man of high enough rank to have been Emperor of Rome. He had long legs and a good stature. As other young men of his time, he must have waited impatiently for the day when he would become a full fledged knight and leave his apprenticeship behind. The day he awaited came in the summer of 1167. At this time, Henry II was at war with the king of France and had seen William de Tancarville to the aid of the Count of Eu. William de Tancarville took this occasion to knight William, as an array of Norman barons was present to witness it.

William Marshal's first opportunity for battle arrived on the morning after he was knighted. The Count of Eu and the constable of Normandy headed out from Drincourt toward Rouen. A messenger intercepted them and told them that the counts of Flanders, Boulogne, and Ponthieu and the lord of St. Valery were headed their way with a large army. During the fighting to save Drincourt, William fought most valiantly and the French were defeated. At a victory celebration that night, someone remarked that William had fought with saving the town instead of trying to take prisoners that he could collect ransoms for. The Earl of Essex said, “Marshal, give me a gift, a crupper or an old horse collar.” To which William replied, “But I have never possessed one in all my life.” “Marshal, what are you saying? Assuredly you had forty or sixty today.” This was the earl's way of reminding William that war was not just a means of achieving fame, but was a business and was now to be his profession.

When the war between Henry and Louis of France ended. The services of William de Tancarville and his men were no longer needed. They returned to Tancarville. Knowing that most knights would not willingly sit around waiting for an opportunity to do battle, he gave his knights leave to seek adventure. William Marshal was in a predicament, because he had lost his horse in battle and did not have the monetary resources to replace it. He still had his palfrey, but it was too light to carry him fully armored into battle or in tournament. De Tancarville felt that William still needed to learn to take advantage of opportunities to capture horses and other booty in battle did not come to his aid and supply him a new mount. William sold the expensive mantle he had worn when he was knighted and bought a baggage horse to carry his armor, but it was still not a war horse. The chamberlains court received word that a tournament was being held near Le Mans. The knights of Anjou, Maine, Pitou and Brittany were to compete against the knights of France, England, and Normandy. William was not as overjoyed as the rest of Tancarville's court because he still did not have a horse to compete with.
De Tancarville decided that William had probably learned his lesson and supplied him with a horse. During the tournament, William managed to capture three knights and extract ransom from them and thereby replenished his finances. As well as ransom, William received the war horses, palfreys, arms, armor and baggage horses of the knights he captured. According to legend, he fought in over 500 tournaments during his lifetime and never lost.

Not long after this, William asked De Tancarville for permission to return to England to visit his family. De Tancarville gave him permission but told him to return shortly, feeling that William might be tempted to stay at home and miss further opportunity to advance himself in battle or tournament. On his way home he came to Salisbury where his maternal uncle, Patrick greeted him joyfully as a son of his sister as well as a gallant knight.

In 1167, William was with his uncle who was summoned to the continent to help the King suppress a revolt of the nobility of Poitou. King Henry captured the castle of Lusignan and then left to meet with Louis VII of France in the Norman marches.

In addition to being duchess of Aquitaine, Henry's queen, Eleanor was also countess of Pitou and as such stayed at Lusignan. William's uncle, Earl Patrick remained with her. Near Eastertide, Queen Eleanor and Earl Patrick were riding outside the castle and ran into a large force commanded by Geoffrey and Guy de Lusignan. Patrick and his men were unarmed, but they refused to run from the enemy. They sent Eleanor to the castle, and prepared for battle. Earl Patrick had been on foot and as he was mounting his charger, one of the Poitevan knights struck a single blow to his back killing him.. William seeing his uncle fall, jumped onto his horse and charged toward the enemy wielding his sword. But he was struck down by a blow that killed his horse, before he could gain revenge for his uncle's death.


Being unable to escape, William put his back to a hedge and began to fight it out on foot. He managed to hold out for some time, killing several of the chargers of his opponents. But, at length, another knight came around behind the hedge and leaned over and thrust his sword into William's thigh. William was easily taken prisoner. They threw William onto a horse and sped away, not wanting to stick around and possible suffer the king's revenge. In order to staunch the flow of blood as they sped away, William had to take the cord from the waist of his undergarment and tie it around his leg.

As they traveled from clandestine spot to clandestine spot, one night the Poitevins stopped at a castle where a lady noticed that they had a wounded prisoner with them. She hid bandages in a hollowed out loaf of bread and sent it to him, thus allowing him to properly bandage his leg.

William was such a strong man that one night as they traveled, his captors were throwing a huge stone for amusement, and William with his injured leg was still able to out throw them all. Queen Eleanor came to rescue him and gave hostages as insurance that his ransom would be paid. She rewarded him for his suffering by giving him money, horses and rich clothing. As a result of this campaign, William maintained a lifelong hatred for the Lusignans and also developed a close relationship to the Plantagenet family.

William De Tancarville, replaced Earl Patrick of Salisbury as the king's lieutenant in Poitou and William Marshal was once again in his service by about 1169. Henry II decided to elevate his eldest son and namesake Henry to the status of king in the spring of 1170. Young Henry was then fifteen years old. Henry was consecrated at Westminster by the archbishop of York and afterwards the earls, barons and free tenants of England paid homage to him. The extraction of an oath of homage to young Henry was standard practice in order to insure a peaceful succession. Crowning of an heir during the lifetime of the king was normal procedure for the Capetian kings of this time..This ceremony only bound the kings vassals to his son secondary to himself.

King Henry was then obligated to provide his heir with a household appropriate with his new royal rank. While the king entrusted his son's political tutelage to others, he appointed William Marshal to be young Henry's tutor in the art of chivalry. William was to teach him the mastery of weapons, and teach him the knightly virtues, and how to protect himself in battle and tournament.

William may have been appointed to this position by right of his reputation, but it can't have hurt that he had served the king and queen so well in the past. Since William had no title of his own, his position in the young prince's household would have been similar to a captain of the guard. He was responsible for the household knights who served the prince, but when he witnessed charters signed by the prince, his signature fell after the barons signing and before the other knights. As a bannoret of the prince's household, William had a half dozen personal followers, who were also knights of lower rank and he received twenty five sous a day to maintain them.

William served in his duty as tutor to the young king between 1170-1173. The young king had the right to call himself king of England, duke of Normandy, and count of Anjou, but since he had not yet been knighted, he could not compete in tournament or take part in battles. Henry II was not intending for his son to be knighted soon, because he could not become a political rival as long as he had not been knighted. He excelled at his education and learned all of the skills and virtues very well. He resented the control his father maintained over him, and wished to be knighted so that he could receive the revenues of his part of the Angevin domains and no longer have to answer to his father for his lavish and generous spending. Some of his household members cautioned him to be patient, but some of them urged him to rebel. His father in law, Louis of France also encouraged rebellion, because he knew this would weaken the father.

In 1173 King Henry II was negotiating the marriage of his youngest son John to the daughter of Hubert of Savoy. Henry II intended to give John the castles of Chinon, Loudon, and Mirabeau as part of the marriage agreement. Young Henry would not agree to this unless he was given sovereignty in England, Normandy and Anjou. King Henry II refused. This negotiating took place at a meeting at Limoges in February 1173.

Both the younger and elder Henrys left and traveled to the north and as the king slept in Chinon castle, the younger Henry took his household and left. This was tantamount to declaring war against his father. King Henry prepared to march against him. In order to lead an army against his father, it was necessary that Prince Henry be knighted. Because he did not wish to offend his father in law who had been chosen to knight him, he sent messengers as soon as he crossed the Rubicon to explain his embarrassing predicament to King Louis. Louis sent his brother Peter de Courtenay and the count of Clermont, and other barons to represent him at the knighting of Prince Henry. Instead of allowing Peter de Courtenay to perform the ceremony, Henry chose to be knighted by William Marshal As a landless knight, this honor of receiving his king into the chivalric order was a great indication of the high esteem he had attained.

King Louis had traveled to Chartres to witness the outcome of the conflict and Henry's younger brothers, Richard and Geoffrey joined Henry there with Louis' French court. King Henry however captured their mother who supported and encouraged the rebellion of her sons was captured by king Henry. King Louis allied himself with his guests and also declared war on King Henry. This encouraged the Angevin barons to rebel against King Henry.

William Marshal would not have been guilty of treason against King Henry. He had no land for which to have done homage to the king and because he was a member of the prince's household and beholden to him for food, clothing, shelter and maintenance, he was feudally tied to the prince first and to the king second. But there is no historical record as to what part William took in this rebellion. In his later years, William was on good terms with the French court and this may have been due to acquaintance and bonds made at this time, if he did accompany the young prince.

At the end of 18 months of fighting, King Henry II was successful in crushing the rebellion and his enemies sued for peace. He agreed to terms with the French king Louis in 1174 as well as three Angevin princes. A treaty was made between Henry and his rebellious sons at Falais , October 11, 1174. about a month later. As his part of the agreement, Prince Henry was given two castles in Normandy and a yearly income of fifteen thousand Angevin pounds. William's name appears as a witness to the treaty and in May 1175 he went back to England with both kings of England.

Until the year 1180, William continued to serve in the prince's household and to further his career and reputation by competing in tournaments. Although he did not possess a fief, due to his fighting prowess and his good council he was held in favor over all of the other members of his household. He was treated as an equal to the counts and barons and this caused the jealousy of some of them. Adam d Iquebeuf, a prominent member of Prince Henry's household and others started a rumor that William had become the lover of Prince Henry's wife, Margaret of France. Those loyal to William refused to give credence to the rumor and even the prince found it hard to believe. But his mind was still turned against William. Although he was full of jealousy and suspicion, he needed William and this caused him to be hesitant to take action against him. Those who had started the rumor went to King Henry II with it and he was glad to believe it. This was probably due to William's cousin the chamberlain of Tancarville being out of favor with the king. The king may have also held William partly responsible for his son's extravagant spending and may have been looking for a way to remove William from his son's household and end any influence that he had over him.

William wanted to end these rumors quickly and publicly. In the fall of 1182, at Christmas time, King Henry held a festival in Caen. Three of his sons, Henry, Richard and Geoffrey and his son in law Henry the Lion of Saxony and Bavaria were with him. There were a large number of prelates and barons from Henry's Angevin domains in attendance. On Christmas day in preparation for a feast a servant was preparing to pour water over the king's hands and those of the princes. William of Tancarville charged into the room followed by a large group of knights and took the water vessels from the servant and performed the ceremony himself. He gave the basins to one of his attendants and the next day he defended his actions before the court by saying that as hereditary chamberlain of Normandy it was his privilege and right to pour water on the king's hands at state occasions. And since he had custody of the basins to be used in the ceremony, he would allow no one to usurp his rights.

William's opportunity to save face before the court came soon after. The younger and elder kings and their prelates and barons sat in state when he approached them and addressed Prince Henry. He denied the rumor and offered to prove his innocence in battle. He said that on three consecutive days he would fight the three strongest of his accusers and if he was defeated by one of them, Prince e Henry could hang him as a traitor. Henry refused his offer. So, William then offered to have his finger cut off of his right hand and then fight the strongest of the accusers. Prince Henry did not wish to bring the matter to trial. He doubted the accusations against William but jealousy caused him to wish to be rid of his rival. William realized that Prince Henry wanted him to be forced to leave the court and so he appealed to King Henry and demanded safe conduct to the frontier of the Angevin lands. King Henry figured this would be a solution to an unpleasant situation and granted him the safe conduct. William and his men left Caen and traveled over the border into Chartres. Since his lord had refused his demand for justice, according to the rules of chivalry, he n longer had any ties to the prince.

William's service was soon sought after by many patrons and courts. He received offers from the count of Flanders, the duke of Burgundy and the advocate of Bethune. He may have accepted the count of Flanders offer of an income of 500pounds a year for his services, because he held a fief in Flanders. He apparently was not obligated to give up his autonomy because he left on pilgrimage to Cologne. But he was not destined to live peacefully for long.

February of 1183 saw a new quarrel break out between the princes of England. Prince Henry and his brother Geoffrey had entered Poitou to aid the vassals of their brother Richard who were rebelling. Richard appealed to his father for help and Henry II entered Limoges and sieged the castle in which Geoffrey and Henry were. The princes called a council of their men to figure out what course to take and Prince Geoffrey stated that they needed William Marshal. Geoffrey de Lusignan who had been present when William's uncle, Earl Patrick was killed said that although William considered him guilty, he was innocent and he further proved his lack of animosity toward William by volunteering to fight in judicial combat to prove the allegations against William to be false.

While they were discussing this, the man who had been chief in those who had accused William came into the room and told Prince Henry that he was the liege-man of the prince's father and that he was obligated to serve him in battle and asked for the prince to allow him to leave to join the king. Prince Henry took this as proof that he was a traitor and that he had slandered William He sent his chamberlain to find William and bring him back to his court. After he was found and given Henry's message, he promised to come as soon as he could. He did not intend to rush into the situation without planning out how to do it safely. He knew that he needed to be given safe passage from King Henry II. In order to obtain this he sought the aid of King Philip, the archbishop of Rheims and to Count Robert of Dreux and Count Theobald of Blois, asking that they send letters of recommendation to king Henry. Henry II gave him the safe conduct and even granted him permission to fight against hi in the service of the prince.

Considering that the king had considered William a bad influence on his son mere months before, what might have changed his mind? Although he would have wanted to reign in his sons, he would not likely have wanted to endanger the safety of them and he probably figured that William was loyal and level headed and would have been able to temper the princes' tendency toward rash behavior. At the time the princes were spending a lot of time plundering the countryside and raiding abbeys and shrines and William would not have approved of this.

William set out to join his prince who had left Limoges and was then near the Dordogne river. The prince fell ill near the end of May and during his illness, he renounced his rebellion against the king and about the 11th of June, he received the last rights.

Before he died he asked William to take his cloak with the red cross sewn onto it to the Holy Sepulchre. He had taken crusaders vows and had not managed to fulfill them and was now dying. William promised to fulfill his vow for him. The prince died soon afterwards. When William and the princes other knights made preparation to take his body to his father at Limoges. A man named Sancho who had been fighting as a mercenary for the prince decided that the would retrieve the pay owed to him by taking William hostage and demanding a ransom of one hundred marks. William could not afford to pay it. He promised to return himself into Sancho's custody if he were allowed to take the prince's body to Limoges. When William and the other knights arrived at the king's camp, he ordered William to take Prince Henry's body to Rouen to be buried in the cathedral there. William told him about his promise to Sancho and the king paid the ransom himself.

After the prince was buried, William was given permission by the king to fulfill his promise to take the prince's cross to the Holy Sepulchre. In order to ensure that William return quickly from the Holy Land, the king took two of his finest horses. Before leaving, William visited his family in England.

It is while he was in the Holy Land that he fought against the Muslim forces and made his acquaintance with the Templars, most likely making a promise to die I their order.

William returned from the Holy Land in 1187 and went to Lyons-la-foret, where the king welcomed him. The king took him into the service of his household and gave him as a fief Cartmel in Lancashire. He also gave him the custody of Helwis, the daughter of William de Lancaster and her lands. He could obtain the land permanently if he chose to marry her. As part of his duties he served ans a captain, counselor and an ambassador to the king. William served the king through the many rebellions of his sons. In 1189, while covering the flight of Henry II from Le Mans to Chinon, William unhorsed the undutiful Richard in a skirmish. William could have killed the prince but killed his horse instead, to make that point clear.

Despite this incident, after Henry II's death, Richard welcomed him at court. In deference to his growing prestige, King Richard arranged for him to marry Isabel De Clare, in August 1189. She was said to have been the second richest heiress in England. She was the daughter of the Earl of Pembroke.
William was given his title and estates in England, Wales, Normandy and Ireland. He was now one of the richest men in England. William was 43 and Isabel was just 17. They had five sons and five daughters.

Isabel brought to William the palatine lordships of Pembroke and Striguil in Wales and the lordship of Leinster in Ireland. He held these large fiefs as tenant-in-chief of the Crown. A palatine lord was the law within his own lands, with the right to appoint his own officials, courts and sheriffs, and collect and keep the proceeds of his courts and governments. Except for ecclesiastical cases, the king's writ did not run in the palatinates. Richard also allowed William to buy 1/2 of the barony of Giffard for 2000 marks. Marshal owned the manors of Crendon in Buckinghamshire and the fief of Longueville in Normandy with the castles of Longueville and Mueller and Moulineaux, for about 40 knights' fees.

William Marshal treated his lands as a single unit, despite the fact that they were spread out over, England, Ireland, Wales and Normandy. He intended that they be preserved intact for the inheritance of his children.

He was responsible for building the great Tower, the Horseshoe Gatehouse and the fighting gallery in the outer curtain wall at Pembroke castle. At Chepstow (Striguil), he built the gate in the middle bailey, and rebuilt the upper level of the keep, the west barbican, and the upper and lower bailey. He also built the castle at Kilkenny, the new castle at Emlyn, and improved Cilgerran. From a list of castles by R. A. Brown for the period from 1153 to 1214, Marshal held Chepstow, Cilgerran, Emlyn, Goodrich, Haverford, Inkberrow, Pembroke, Tenby, and Usk in England and Wales.

When King Richard left to go on the Third Crusade, he appointed William to the council of regency for his brother John. And when William's elder brother John Marshal died, William was allowed by the king to succeed him as hereditary marshal. When Richard lay dying, he made William the custodian of Rouen and of the royal treasury.

King John succeeded his brother Richard in 1199 and despite a few fallings out, William supported him through his troubles with the barons during the First Baron's War and the signing of the Magna Carta. King John belted William making him the Earl of Pembroke, on the day he was crowned, May 27, 1199. During his reign, John managed to alienate almost all of his barons. He accused William of being a traitor and took all of his English and Welsh castles as well as taking William's two oldest sons hostage. He even tried to instigate William's household knights to challenge him to combat. Ever a loyal servant to the crown, William did not rebel against the confiscation of his lands and gave over his sons for hostages. He honored his oath of fealty, as the code of chivalry would have compelled him to do. He supported John during the papal interdict and during the baronial rebellion. The Magna Carta lists him as an advisor of King John, but not as a surety. It was fortunate for King John that William did not take the side of the barons, because if he had, John would have lost his kingdom and his life. When he was dying, King John asked that William ensure his son, Henry, who was only nine, succeed to the throne.

When the king died in 1216, William was made regent to the boy king. By this time he was 70 years old, but still fought well against the barons and Louis VIII of France. During the battle of Lincoln, he fought at the head of the young king, Henry's army. And led them to victory. As a statesman he negotiated terms with the rebels in 1217. Motivated by the intent to expedite the end of the war, and establish peace and a stable kingdom for his young king, he was generous in these terms, for which he received criticism. One of William's acts as regent was to have the Magna Carta reissued twice, in 1216 and 1217.

In 1219 he became ill and in March of that year it became apparent that he was dying. He called for his eldest son to come to him. He went from the Tower of London to Caversham, his estate in Oxfordshire. He called a meeting with the barons, the royal justiciar, the papal legate and King Henry III and Peter des Roches, Bishop of Winchester and also the king's guardian. He appointed the papal legate to the regency, because he did not trust the Bishop of Winchester.

As per his vow, which he made while he was in the Holy Land, he was invested into the Knights Templar on his deathbed. He died on 14 May 1219 at Caversham. When he died, his body was first taken to Reading Abbey, where the monks placed it in the choir and held mass. The next day it was taken to Westminster Abbey, and mass was held again, and then it was taken to the Templar Church in London and interred, where his effigy can still be seen.

William Marshal was born into a world of feudalism, and his sense of honor, however you may judge it, was defined by the law of feudalism. It was this sense of honor that guided his life, and allowed him to become so renowned.

After his death, William ,his eldest son, commissioned a biography of his father to be written called L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal. It is composed of 19,214 lines, in rhyming octosyllabic couples,meaning that there are eight syllables per line, and was written in the Anglo-Norman language.

It was written possibly by his squire John D'Erlay. There is only one surviving copy of it and it is housed in the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York. This book was written soon after his death, giving more credence to its accuracy, since many of his contemporaries would have been alive to dispute any inaccuracy.
Some things I have read indicate that John D'Erlay was merely a squire to William Marshal. But in L'Histoire:
It says that Sir John D'Erlee was one of the marshal's counsellors when he was serving as regent for King John's son. So, if he did not actually write, L'Histoire, then he was known to the writer.

Titles and Names William was known by:

4th Earl of Pembroke

Marshal of England or Mareschal of England sometimes spelled Marshall

William Fitzjohn Marshall IV


Important dates for William Marshall

1146 birth about 1146

1152 William is given as a hostage to King Stephen

1159 William is sent to the household of William de Tancarville to train for knighthood

1167 knighted in 1167

1167 William began his successful career of tournament competition

1170 appointed head of the prince's military household 1170

1183 he knighted Prince Henry in 1183
young Prince Henry died and William took his cross to the Holy Land

1185-1187 William encountered the Knights Templar and vowed to die and be buried in their order

1187 King Henry II granted William the fief of Cartmel in Lancashire

1187-1188 William served as the king's advisor, ambassador, and as a knight under him

1189 Richard I became king and gave William through marriage to Isabel De Clare, Pembroke and Striguil, and the Lordship of Leinster in Ireland, making him one of the richest men in England. He was also allowed to buy ½ of the barony of Gifford for 2000 marks. He owned the manor of Crendon in Buckinghamshire, the fief of Longueville in Normandy, with the castles of Longueville and Mueller and Moulineaux

1203King John confiscated William's properties.

1203-1212 William's sons were hostage for King John

1215 Barons War

1216 At King John's death in 1216, William was chosen by his peers to act as Regent for young Henry III

1220 William Marshal II commissioned "L' Historie de Guillaume le Marechal,"















I have at least five lines of descent from William Marshal.

William Marshal
+Isabel De Clare.

Maud Marshal
+William Warren
+Hugh Bigod (I also descend from their daughter Isabel who married John FitzGeoffrey
see below)

John De Warren
+Alice Le Brun


William De Warren
+Joan De Vere


Alice De Warren
+Edmund FitzAlan


Alice FitzAlan (sources differ as to whether Edmund or Richard above are her dad)
+John De Segrave

John De Segrave
+Margaret Plantagenet


Elizabeth De Segrave
+John De Mowbray


Thomas De Mowbray
+Elizabeth FitzAlan


Margaret De Mowbay
+Robert Howard


John Howard
+Catherine Moleyns


Thomas Howard
+Elizabeth Tilney


William Howard
+Margaret Gamage


William Howard
+Francis Gouldwell


Francis Howard
+Jane Monson


John Howard
+Margaret Clarke


Henry Howard
+Elizabeth Moss


Ann Howard
+William Tunnell


Elizabeth Tunnell
+George Russell Ball


Hester Ball
+Jesse Fuller


Sarah Fuller
+Moses Hayton


James Madison Hayton
+Elizabeth Tennessee Harris


Nancy Jane Hayton
+George Washington Lilly


Mary Elizabeth Lilly
+Frank Clifton Taylor Sr. my paternal grandparents




William Marshal
+Isabel De Clare

Sibyl Marshal
+William De Ferrers


Sibyl De Ferrers
+Franco De Bohun


John De Bohun
+Joan De La Chapell


James De Bohun
+Joan De Braose


John De Bohun
+Cicely Filliol


John De Bohun
+Anne Joan Halsham


John De Bohun
+Avelina De Ros


Geoffrey Boone De Bohun
+Petroline Petrolina De Arderne

Geoffrey Boon De Bohun
+Anne Maggerly

Gregory Boone
+Constance Ap Comyn

George Boone
+Anne Fallace

George Bohun
+Catherine Morgan

George Boone
+Sarah Uppey

George Boone
+Mary Milton Maugridge

Sarah I. Boone and Jacob Stover

Abraham Stover
+Sarah

Henry Stover
+Anna Kline

Jacob Stover
+Sarah “Sally” McGhee

Elijah Stover
+Mary Scarberry

Jubel Stover

+Mary J Doughty

Rachel E.Stover

+Augustus Harless

William Hamilton Harless
+Anna Pauley

William Augustus Harless
+Violet Memphis Wetherholt my maternal grandparents



William Marshal
+Isabel De Clare

Isabel Marshal
+Gilbert De Clare

Isabel De Clare
+Robert De Bruce

Robert Bruce
+Marjory

Robert Bruce
+Isabel of Mar

Marjory Bruce
+Walter Stewart

Robert II Stuart of Scotland
+Elizabeth Mure

Margaret Stuart
+John Macdonald, lord of the Isles

Donald Domhnall MacDonald
+Margaret Mary Mariota Leslie

Alexander McDonald
+Elizabeth Seton

Hugh Uisdeen MacDonald

+Mary Elizabeth Gunn

Donald "Gallach" Huchounson Macdonald

+Unknown

Donald Gruamach Macdonald
+Margaret MacDonald

Donald Gorm MacDonald
+Margaret MacLeod

Donald Gormeson MacDonald
+Mary MacLean

Archibald MacDonald
+Margaret MacDonald

Donald MacDonald
+Janet MacKenszie

James MacDonald
+Mary MacLeod

Marion MacDonald
+Patrick MacGregor

William Mackgayhaye
+unknown

William Mackgehee
+Mary Carr

James Mackgehee
+Rebecca Rebecka Prewitt

Sarah Sally McGee
+Jacob Stover

Elijah Stover
+Mary Scarberry

Jubel Stover
+Mary J Doughty

Rachel E.Stover
+Augustus Harless

William Hamilton Harless
+Anna Pauley

William Augustus Harless
+Violet Memphis Wetherholt my maternal grandparents




William Marshal
+Isabel De Clare

Joane Marshal
+Warin De Munchensy

Joan De Munchensy
+William De Valence

Joan Johanna De Valence
+John Comyn

Joan Comyn
+David De Strathbogie

Adomar Aymer De Strathbogie
+Elenor Eleanor Felton

Mary D Athol Strathbogie
+Robert De Lisle

John Lisle
+Joan Swinburne

Thomas Lisle
+Anne Ogle

Robert Lisle
+Isabelle Camville

Humphrey Lisle
+Margaret Bowes

William Lisle
+unknown Fenwick

Thomas Bromsgrove Lilly
+Elizabeth Owen

Thomas Lilly Lilley
+Philippa Marshall

John Lyly Lilly
+Mary Gabbett Gabot

John Lilly
+Mary Willoughby

John Lilly Lysley
+Isabelle Doriaston Doralston Dorlaston

John Lilly
+Mary Maulson

John Lilly
+Dorothy Wade

John Lilly
+Dorothy Billups

Robert Lilly
+Mary Fanny Moody

Thomas Lilly
+Roseanna Meador

Thomas J Lilly
+Delilah H Payne

Levi Madison Lilly
+Rebecca Shrewsbury

George Washington Lilly
+Naomi Meador

George Washington Lilly
+Nancy Jane Hayton

Mary Elizabeth Lilly
+Frank Clifton Taylor Sr my paternal grandparents



William Marshal
+Isabel De Clare.

Maud Marshal
+Hugh Bigod

Isabel De Bigod
+John Fitzgeoffrey

Isabel FitzJohn
+Robert De Vipount

Isabel De Vipount
+Roger De Clifford

Robert De Clifford
+Maud De Clare

Robert De Clifford
+Isabel Berkley

Roger De Clifford
+Maud De Beauchamp

Katherine De Clifford
+Ralph De Greystoke

john De Greystoke
+Elizabeth De Ferrers

Ralph De Greystoke
+Elizabeth FitzHugh

Joan De Greystoke
+William Bowes

William Bowes
+Maud FitzHugh

Margaret Bowes
+Humphrey Lisle

William Lisle
+unknown Fenwick

Thomas Bromsgrove Lilly
+Elizabeth Owen

Thomas Lilly Lilley
+Philippa Marshall

John Lyly Lilly
+Mary Gabbett Gabot

John Lilly
+Mary Willoughby

John Lilly Lysley
+Isabelle Doriaston Doralston Dorlaston

John Lilly
+Mary Maulson

John Lilly
+Dorothy Wade

John Lilly
+Dorothy Billups

Robert lilly
+Mary Fanny Moody

Thomas Lilly
+Roseanna Meador(see links above)

Thomas J Lilly
+Delilah H Payne(see links above)

Levi Madison Lilly
+Rebecca Shrewsbury(see links above)

George Washington Lilly
+Naomi Meador(see links above)

George Washington Lilly
+Nancy Jane Hayton

Mary Elizabeth Lilly
+Frank Clifton Taylor Sr my paternal grandparents
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