Sunday, October 18, 2009

Thomas Howard and Elizabeth Tilney

Thomas Howard and Elizabeth Tilney

Thomas Howard was born 1443 in Stoke By Nayland, Suffolk, England and died 21 May 1524, Farlingham Castle, Farlingham, Norfolk, England. He was the son of John Howard and Catherine Moleyns.

Thomas was severely wounded at Barnet 14 April 1471 and in gratitute to the Howard's Edward IV appointed his father, John deputy governor of Calais and made Thomas one of the four esquires of the king's body. Thomas was also given a wealthy widow as bride in reward. He married Elizabeth Tilney, who was the widow of Humphrey Bourchier, killed at Barnet.

When Edward IV died, his son Edward V was to be his successor, but Richard, Duke of Gloucester seized the throne. Melvin Duke wrote a biography of the Howards and indicated that John Howard was the actual murderer of the princes in the Tower. Other writers deny that he had any part in it. They appear to have been close to Richard of Gloucester before he took the throne, but that does not necessarily implicate them.

John Howard became hereditary earl marshal under King Richard, and with the honor there was a fee of twenty pounds a year. He was also soon thereafter made Duke of Norfolk, with an annuity of forty pounds. Thomas was made earl of Surrey and given an annuity of twenty pounds. King Richard then gave the Howards the Mowbray lands that they had been denied by his brother Edward IV.

Richard III had fought at Barnet and Tewkesbury with John Howard, and needed loyal soldiers around him in order to retain the crown he had seized. John and Thomas Howard put down a revold by Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham in 1483.

Thomas Howard was given an annuity of 1100 pounds in 1484 from lands in Cornwall, during his father's lifetime. The Howard's were given the wardship of Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex. This meant that they had custody of him and the right to choose his marriage, and they basically controlled all of his inheritance until he did marry.

Thomas was made steward of Richard III's household and the duchy of Lancaster. John and Thomas were given commissions of the peace, array and jail delivery, and were frequently in royal service.

When Henry Tudor landed in Wales and became a problem to Richard III, John Howard raised troops in Essex, Norfolk and Suffolk. John Howard commanded the vanguard and his son Thomas was his lieutenant under Richard III, when he met Henry's forces close to Market Bosworth, 22 August 1485.

John Howard was killed and his son Thomas was wounded and taken prisoner. John was buried at a chuch in Thetford. Thomas was placed in the Tower.

Henry became, Henry VII. His steward John Radcliff, went to Ashwelthorpe and intended to seize it, but he was unable to because it was part of Thomas' wife Elizabeth Tilney's inheritance. In order to make a point though, he dismissed most of her servants.All of the rest of the Howard property was forfeited to the crown.

When Henry VII held his first parliament in 1485, it upheld his seizure of Howard lands, and passed an act of attainer for John and Thomas Howard as well as more than twenty others who had supported Richard III.

Henry pardoned Thomas Howard in 1486, but he was stripped of his title of earl and left in prison until 1489. He was allowed to keep forty shillings a week for board, and three servants. In 1489, Thomas was restored as earl of Surrey and released, but he was not allowed to take his father's title of Duke of Norfolk. The only lands he was allowed to hold were those that he had inherited from relatives other than his father and those of his wife.

Thomas Howard was then sent to Yorkshire to put down a revolt. He was successful and as a reward, he was restored to the rest of his father's lands.

Thomas' older sons, Thomas and Edward were made pages in Henry VII's household, while this was an honor of sorts, they were also a sort of hostage to ensure their father's good behavior.

In 1503, Thomas Howrard, Earl of Surrey and his wife escorted Henry VII's daughter Margaret to Scotland to meet her husband James IV.

When the king died in 1509, both Thomas the elder and the younger as well as Edward were issued black velvet livery of mourning and Edward carried the king's banner in the funeral procession. Thomas Howard, Earl Surrey, was one of the executors of the king's will. At the king's burial he and other king's officials and household members broke their staves and threw them down.

Thomas continued to serve the new king, Henry VIII. In 1511, Lord Surrey was appointed Warden-General of the Northern Marches. In 1513, the Scots invaded England to meet their treaty obligations to France under the Auld Alliance. At the Battle of Flodden Field,the English, under Howard's command, crushed the Scots. With victory, Lord Surrey was restored to his father's title of Duke of Norfolk, in 1514, which title had been forfeit since 1485 because of his father's support of Richard.

Thomas died in 1524 and was buried in Thetford Priory.When the Dissolution of the Priories occcuried, some of the Howard tombs were move to St.Michael the Archangel, Framlingham, but it is not known if his was moved there. A monumental brass depicting him was formerly in the Church of St. Mary at Lambeth so his body could have been moved to the Howard family chapel where many members of his family (including Anne Boleyn's mother) were interred. He may be in the tomb of the 3rd Duke of Norfolk, in St. Michael's in Framlingham. There are four coffins there.

To commemorate his victory at the Battle of Flodden Field, Henry VIII granted an Augmentation of Honour to Howard's coat of arms. It is a modification of the Royal coat of arms of Scotland. Instead of its normal rampant position, the lion is shown with an arrow through its mouth. He bore, Gules a Bend between six Cross-crosslets fitchy Argent. For augmentation to be charged on the bend, the Royal Shield of Scotland, having a demi-lion only, which is pierced through the mouth with an arrow.The arms can still be seen as a quarter in the arms of Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk.

His first marriage was to Elizabeth Tilney, born before 1447 and died 4 April 1497. She was the daughter of Sir Frederick Tilney of Ashwellthorpe and Elizabeth Cheney.

They had the following children:

Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (1473-25 August 1554)
Edmund Howard, (Father of Catherine Howard, wife of Henry VIII) (about 1479-1539)
Edward Howard (1477-25 Apr 1513) Admiral
Henry Howard died young
Richard Howard died young
Muriel Howard m. Edward Knyvett
Elizabeth Howard,m. Thomas Boleyn, mother of Anne and Mary
John Howard died young
Henry Howard died young
Charles Howard died young

Thomas' 2nd marriage was to Agnes Tilney, born 1478 and died 1545. She was the daughter of Hugh Tilney and Eleanor Tailboys. She was his first wife's first cousin. (Papal dispensation 17 Aug 1497, licence 8 Nov 1497)

Their children were:
William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham
Thomas Howard (1511-1537) betrothed to Margaret Douglas
Elizabeth Howard (d. 1536) m. Henry Radclyffe, Earl of Sussex
Catherine Howard (d. 1554) m. Rhys ap Griffith FitzUryan and 2nd Henry Daubney, earl of Bridgewater
Dorothy Howard, m. Edward Stanley, Earl of Derbyshire
George Howard
Agnes Howard
Anne Howard, m. John de Vere, Earl of Oxford
Richard Howard (-1517)
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